Catherine Linard Post-doc Researcher (ULB) / Lecturer (U. Namur)

Biographical sketch.

Catherine Linard graduated in Geographical Sciences at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL, Belgium) in 2005. She completed her PhD thesis on spatial and integrated modelling of complex disease systems at the Department of Geography of the UCL in January 2009 and was then visiting researcher for 4 months at the Department of Zoology (TALA Research Group), University of Oxford. She was then a post-doctoral fellow of the Wiener-Anspach Foundation for two years at the Department of Zoology of the University of Oxford, followed by four years (2011-2015) as post-doctoral fellow of the “Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique” (FNRS, Brussels, Belgium) at the ULB. She is now sharing her time between an half-time academic position at the department of Geography of the University of Namur and a half-time researcher position at the ULB.

Research interests.

Catherine is interested in integrated approaches to spatial issues in epidemiology. She combines different methods and tools (e.g. Geographical Information Systems, spatial statistics and models, high resolution remote sensing) for a spatial and integrated approach to various disease systems, especially vector-borne and zoonotic diseases (e.g. malaria, dengue, avian influenza). Her current research activities focus on human population distribution predictions, urban expansion models for Africa and the impact of population distribution changes on health and vulnerability. She also produces and updates high-resolution population distribution maps for African countries (WorldPop project:



Modelling changing population distributions: an example of the Kenyan Coast, 1979–2009
C. Linard, C.W. Kabaria, M. Gilbert, A.J. Tatem, A.E. Gaughan, F.R. Stevens, A. Sorichetta, A.M. Noor and R.W. Snow.
"International Journal of Digital Earth", 2017.

The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa
C.W. Kabaria, M. Gilbert, A.M. Noor, R.W. Snow and C. Linard.
"Malaria Journal", vol. 16, 2017.


Clade-level Spatial Modelling of HPAI H5N1 Dynamics in the Mekong Region Reveals New Patterns and Associations with Agro-Ecological Factors
J. Artois, S.H. Newman, M.S. Dhingra, C. Chaiban, C. Linard, G. Cattoli, I. Monne, A. Fusaro, I. Xenarios, R. Engler, R. Liechti, D. Kuznetsov, T.L. Pham, T. Nguyen, V.D. Pham, D. Castellan, S. Von Dobschuetz, F. Claes, G. Dauphin, K. Inui and M. Gilbert.
"Scientific Reports", vol. 6, 2016.

Global mapping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and H5Nx clade viruses with spatial cross-validation
M.S. Dhingra, J. Artois, T.P. Robinson, C. Linard, C. Chaiban, I. Xenarios, R. Engler, R. Liechti, D. Kuznetsov, X. Xiao, S.V. Dobschuetz, F. Claes, S.H. Newman, G. Dauphin and M. Gilbert.
"eLife", vol. 5, 2016.

H7N9 and H5N1 avian influenza suitability models for China: accounting for new poultry and live-poultry markets distribution data
J. Artois, S. Lai, L. Feng, H. Jiang, H. Zhou, X. Li, M.S. Dhingra, C. Linard, G. Nicolas, X. Xiao, T.P. Robinson, H. Yu and M. Gilbert.
"Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment", 2016.

Mapping intra-urban malaria risk using high resolution satellite imagery: a case study of Dar es Salaam
C.W. Kabaria, F. Molteni, R. Mandike, F. Chacky, A.M. Noor, R.W. Snow and C. Linard.
"International Journal of Health Geographics", vol. 15, issue 1, 2016.

Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, C. Linard, P. Chinson, S. Kasemsuwan, M. Visser, A.E. Gaughan, M. Epprech, T.P. Robinson and M. Gilbert.
"BMC Veterinary Research", vol. 12, issue 1, 2016.

Spatiotemporal patterns of population in mainland China, 1990 to 2010
A.E. Gaughan, F.R. Stevens, Z. Huang, J.J. Nieves, A. Sorichetta, S. Lai, X. Ye, C. Linard, G.M. Hornby, S.I. Hay, H. Yu and A.J. Tatem.
"Scientific Data", vol. 3, 2016.


Disaggregating Census Data for Population Mapping Using Random Forests with Remotely-Sensed and Ancillary Data
F.R. Stevens, A.E. Gaughan, C. Linard and A.J. Tatem.
"PLOS ONE", vol. 10, issue 2, 2015.

Exploring nationally and regionally defined models for large area population mapping
A. Gaughan, F. Stevens, C. Linard, N. Patel and A. Tatem.
"International Journal of Digital Earth", vol. 8, issue 12, 2015.

High-resolution gridded population datasets for Latin America and the Caribbean in 2010, 2015, and 2020
A. Sorichetta, G.M. Hornby, F.R. Stevens, A.E. Gaughan, C. Linard and A.J. Tatem.
"Scientific Data", vol. 2, 2015.

Improving AfriPop dataset with settlement extents extracted from RapidEye for the border region comprising South-Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique
J. Deleu, J. Franke, M. Gebreslasie and C. Linard.
"Geospatial Health", vol. 10, issue 2, 2015.

Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs
M. Gilbert, G. Conchedda, T.P. Van Boeckel, G. Cinardi, C. Linard, G. Nicolas, W. Thanapongtharm, L. D'Aietti, W. Wint, S.H. Newman and T.P. Robinson.
"PLOS ONE", vol. 10, issue 7, 2015.

Spatial characterization of colonies of the flying fox bat, a carrier of Nipah Virus in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, C. Linard, W. Wiriyarat, P. Chinsorn, B. Kanchanasaka, X. Xiao, C. Biradar, R.G. Wallace and M. Gilbert.
"BMC Veterinary Research", vol. 11, issue 1, 2015.


Dynamic population mapping using mobile phone data
P. Deville, C. Linard, S. Martin, M. Gilbert, F.R. Stevens, A.E. Gaughan, V.D. Blondel and A.J. Tatem.
"Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences", vol. 111, issue 45, 2014.

Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia
M. Gilbert, N. Golding, H. Zhou, G.R.W. Wint, T.P. Robinson, A.J. Tatem, S. Lai, S. Zhou, H. Jiang, D. Guo, Z. Huang, J.P. Messina, X. Xiao, C. Linard, T.P. Van Boeckel, V. Martin, S. Bhatt, P.W. Gething, J.J. Farrar, S.I. Hay and H. Yu.
"Nature Communications", vol. 5, 2014.

Spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, C. Linard, N. Pamaranon, S. Kawkalong, T. Noimoh, K. Chanachai, T. Parakgamawongsa and M. Gilbert.
"BMC veterinary research", vol. 10, 2014.

Spatio-temporal epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza (subtype H5N1) in poultry in eastern India
M.S. Dhingra, R. Dissanayake, A.B. Negi, M. Oberoi, D. Castellan, M. Thrusfield, C. Linard and M. Gilbert.
"Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology", vol. 11, 2014.


High Resolution Population Distribution Maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015
A.E. Gaughan, F.R. Stevens, C. Linard, P. Jia and A.J. Tatem.
"PLoS ONE", vol. 8, issue 2, 2013.

Millennium development health metrics: where do Africa’s children and women of childbearing age live?
A.J. Tatem, A.J. Garcia, R.W. Snow, A.M. Noor, A.E. Gaughan, M. Gilbert and C. Linard.
"Population health metrics", vol. 11, issue 1, 2013.

Modelling spatial patterns of urban growth in Africa
C. Linard, A.J. Tatem and M. Gilbert.
"Applied Geography", vol. 44, 2013.

Quantifying the effects of using detailed spatial demographic data on health metrics: a systematic analysis for the AfriPop, AsiaPop, and AmeriPop projects
A.J. Tatem, A.E. Gaughan, F.R. Stevens, N.N. Patel, P. Jia, A. Pandey and C. Linard.
"The Lancet", vol. 381, 2013.

Science–policy challenges for biodiversity, public health and urbanization: examples from Belgium
H. Keune, C. Kretsch, G. De Blust, M. Gilbert, L. Flandroy, K. Van den Berge, V. Versteirt, T. Hartig, L. De Keersmaecker, H. Eggermont, D. Brosens, J. Dessein, S. Vanwambeke, A.H. Prieur-Richard, H. Wittmer, A. Van Herzele, C. Linard, P. Martens, E. Mathijs, I. Simoens, P. Van Damme, F. Volckaert, P. Heyman and T. Bauler.
"Environmental Research Letters", vol. 8, issue 2, 2013.

The Nosoi commute: a spatial perspective on the rise of BSL-4 laboratories in cities
T.P. Van Boeckel, M.J. Tildesley, C. Linard, J. Halloy, M.J. Keeling and M. Gilbert.
"arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.3283", 2013.


Large-scale spatial population databases in infectious disease research
C. Linard and A.J. Tatem.
"International Journal of Health Geographics", vol. 11, issue 1, 2012.

Mapping populations at risk: improving spatial demographic data for infectious disease modeling and metric derivation
A.J. Tatem, S. Adamo, N. Bharti, C.R. Burgert, M. Castro, A. Dorelien, G. Fink, C. Linard, M. John, L. Montana and others.
"Population health metrics", vol. 10, issue 1, 2012.

Monitoring the impact of decentralised chronic care services on patient travel time in rural Africa-methods and results in Northern Malawi
R.M. Houben, T.P. Van Boeckel, V. Mwinuka, P. Mzumara, K. Branson, C. Linard, F. Chimbwandira, N. French, J.R. Glynn and A.C. Crampin.
"International journal of health geographics", vol. 11, issue 1, 2012.

Population Distribution, Settlement Patterns and Accessibility across Africa in 2010
C. Linard, M. Gilbert, R.W. Snow, A.M. Noor and A.J. Tatem.
"PLoS ONE", vol. 7, issue 2, 2012.


Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling
C. Linard, M. Gilbert and A.J. Tatem.
"GeoJournal", vol. 76, issue 5, 2011.

Population mapping of poor countries
A. Tatem and C. Linard.
"Nature", vol. 474, issue 7349, 2011.

The effects of spatial population dataset choice on estimates of population at risk of disease
A.J. Tatem, N. Campiz, P.W. Gething, R.W. Snow and C. Linard.
"Population Health Metrics", vol. 9, issue 1, 2011.


A high resolution spatial population database of Somalia for disease risk mapping
C. Linard, V.A. Alegana, A.M. Noor, R.W. Snow and A.J. Tatem.
"International journal of health geographics", vol. 9, issue 1, 2010.

Pathogenic landscapes: Interactions between land, people, disease vectors, and their animal hosts
E.F. Lambin, A. Tran, S.O. Vanwambeke, C. Linard and V. Soti.
"International Journal of Health Geographics", vol. 9, issue 1, 2010.


A multi-agent simulation to assess the risk of malaria re-emergence in southern France
C. Linard, N. Ponçon, D. Fontenille and E.F. Lambin.
"Ecological Modelling", vol. 220, issue 2, 2009.

Risk of Malaria Reemergence in Southern France: Testing Scenarios with a Multiagent Simulation Model
C. Linard, N. Ponçon, D. Fontenille and E.F. Lambin.
"EcoHealth", vol. 6, issue 1, 2009.


Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole ( <i>Myodes glareolus</i> ) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence
K. Tersago, A. Schreurs, C. Linard, R. Verhagen, S. Van Dongen and H. Leirs.
"Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases", vol. 8, issue 2, 2008.

Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) a potential malaria vector in Southern France
A. Tran, N. Ponçon, C. Toty, C. Linard, H. Guis, J.B. Ferré, D. Lo Seen, F. Roger, S. de la Rocque, D. Fontenille and T. Baldet.
"International Journal of Health Geographics", vol. 7, issue 1, 2008.


Determinants of the geographic distribution of Puumala virus and Lyme borreliosis infections in Belgium
C. Linard, P. Lamarque, P. Heyman, G. Ducoffre, V. Luyasu, K. Tersago, S.O. Vanwambeke and E.F. Lambin.
"International Journal of Health Geographics", vol. 6, issue 1, 2007.

Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium
C. Linard, K. Tersago, H. Leirs and E.F. Lambin.
"International Journal of Health Geographics", vol. 6, issue 1, 2007.