Marius Gilbert F.R.S.-FNRS Research Director / Vice-rector of research and valorization

Marius Gilbert graduated in Agricultural Sciences at the UniversitŽ Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) in 1995. He was then a visiting researcher for two years at the department of Zoology, University of Oxford and obtained a PhD on the spatial epidemiology of a forest insect pest at ULB in 2001. In 2006, he was awarded a permanent academic position with the Belgian FNRS. In 2016, he founded the Spatial Epidemiology Lab (SpELL) that he now leads as F.R.S.-FNRS research director. During the COVID pandemic, he joined the Expert Group on the Exit Strategy (GEES) that was assembled by the prime minister Sophie Wilmes to advise the government on the lockdown exit strategy. In september 2020 he joined the team of the rector Annemie Schaus as vice-rector of resarch and valorization.

Research interest

Marius has broad interests in the spatial epidemiology of animal diseases and invasive species. An overarching theme is the attempt to better understand how changes in agriculture and ecosystems have affected the conditions of emergence, spread and persistence of pathogens, including those with pandemic potential. His main area of expertise includes the epidemiology of avian influenza, emerging infectious diseases, global changes in livestock production systems, and livestock distribution models.

Science communication

Marius played an key role in the french-speaking national media during the COVID-19 pandemic, with numerous interventions throughout the pandemic. In September 2020, he published “Juste un passage au JT (Luc Pire)", which aimed to popularize the science behind the pandemic with the public and to share the experience of a scientist' journey at the nexus of political decision and communication in the media.

Publications

Combined phylogeographic analyses and epidemiologic contact tracing to characterize atypically pathogenic avian influenza (H3N1) epidemic, Belgium, 2019
S. V. Borm*, G. Boseret*, S. Dellicour*, M. Steensels, V. Roupie, F. Vandenbussche, E. Mathijs, A. Vilain, M. Driesen, M. Dispas, A. W. Delcloo, P. Lemey, I. Mertens, M. Gilbert, B. Lambrecht, and T. v. d. Berg. *Equal contribution
"Emerging Infectious Diseases", Vol. 29, Issue 2, Pages 351, 2023.

Accommodating sampling location uncertainty in continuous phylogeography
S. Dellicour, P. Lemey, M. A. Suchard, M. Gilbert, and G. Baele. "Virus Evolution", Vol. 8, Issue 1, Pages veac041, 2022.

A world apart: Levels and determinants of excess mortality due to COVID-19 in care homes: The case of the Belgian region of Wallonia during the spring 2020 wave
O. J. Hardy, D. Dubourg, M. Bourguignon, S. Dellicour, T. Eggerickx, M. Gilbert, J.-P. Sanderson, A. Scohy, E. Vandael, and J.-M. Decroly. "Demographic Research", Vol. 45, Issue 33, Pages 1011-1040, 2021.

Estimating migration of Gonioctena quinquepunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Inside a mountain range in a spatially explicit context
C. Kastally, S. Dellicour, O. J. Hardy, M. Gilbert, and P. Mardulyn. "Insect Systematics and Diversity", Vol. 5, Issue 5, 2021.

Twenty-year trends in antimicrobial resistance from aquaculture and fisheries in Asia
D. Schar, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, D. G. J. Larsson, M. Gilbert, and T. P. Van Boeckel. "Nature Communications", Vol. 12, Issue 1, Pages 5384, 2021.

Leveraging of SARS-CoV-2 PCR cycle thresholds values to forecast COVID-19 trends
N. Yin, S. Dellicour, V. Daubie, N. Franco, M. Wautier, C. Faes, D. Van Cauteren, L. Nymark, N. Hens, M. Gilbert, M. Hallin, and O. Vandenberg. "Frontiers in Medicine", Vol. 8, Pages 2036, 2021.

Investigating the drivers of the spatio-temporal heterogeneity in COVID-19 hospital incidence — Belgium as a study case
S. Dellicour, C. Linard, N. Van Goethem, D. Da Re, J. Artois, J. Bihin, P. Schaus, F. Massonnet, H. Van Oyen, S. O. Vanwambeke, N. Speybroeck, and M. Gilbert. "International Journal of Health Geographics", Vol. 20, Issue 1, Pages 29, 2021.

A phylodynamic workflow to rapidly gain insights into the dispersal history and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineages
S. Dellicour, K. Durkin, S. L. Hong, B. Vanmechelen, J. Martí-Carreras, M. S. Gill, C. Meex, S. Bontems, E. André, M. Gilbert, C. Walker, N. D. Maio, N. R. Faria, J. Hadfield, M.-P. Hayette, V. Bours, T. Wawina-Bokalanga, M. Artesi, G. Baele, and P. Maes. "Molecular Biology and Evolution", Vol. 38, Issue 4, Pages 1608-1613, 2021.

Mapping 20 years of urban expansion in 45 urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
Y. Forget, M. Shimoni, M. Gilbert, and C. Linard. "Remote Sensing", Vol. 13, Issue 3, 2021.

High dispersal capacity of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vector of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, revealed by landscape genetic analyses
A. Mignotte, C. Garros, S. Dellicour, M. Jacquot, M. Gilbert, L. Gardès, T. Balenghien, M. Duhayon, I. Rakotoarivony, M. de Wavrechin, and K. Huber. "Parasites and Vectors", Vol. 14, Issue 1, Pages 93, 2021.

Downscaling livestock census data using multivariate predictive models: Sensitivity to modifiable areal unit problem
D. D. Re, M. Gilbert, C. Chaiban, P. Bourguignon, W. Thanapongtharm, T. P. Robinson, and S. O. Vanwambeke. "PLoS One", Vol. 15, Issue 1, Pages e0221070, 2020.

Epidemiological hypothesis testing using a phylogeographic and phylodynamic framework
S. Dellicour, S. Lequime, B. Vrancken, M. S. Gill, P. Bastide, K. Gangavarapu, N. L. Matteson, Y. Tan, L. du Plessis, A. A. Fisher, M. I. Nelson, M. Gilbert, M. A. Suchard, K. G. Andersen, N. D. Grubaugh, O. G. Pybus, and P. Lemey. "Nature Communications", Vol. 11, Pages 5620, 2020.

Unravelling the dispersal dynamics and ecological drivers of the African swine fever outbreak in Belgium
S. Dellicour, D. Desmecht, J. Paternostre, C. Malengreaux, A. Licoppe, M. Gilbert, and A. Linden. "Journal of Applied Ecology", Vol. 57, Issue 8, Pages 1619-1629, 2020.

Genomic epidemiology, evolution, and transmission dynamics of porcine deltacoronavirus
W.-T. He*, X. Ji*, W. He*, S. Dellicour*, S. Wang, G. Li, L. Zhang, M. Gilbert, H. Zhu, G. Xing, M. Veit, Z. Huang, G.-Z. Han, Y. Huang, M. A. Suchard, G. Baele, P. Lemey, and S. Su. *Equal contribution
"Molecular Biology and Evolution", Vol. 37, Pages 2641-2654, 2020.

Global trends in antimicrobial use in aquaculture
D. Schar, E. Y. Klein, R. Laxminarayan, M. Gilbert, and T. P. Van Boeckel. "Scientific Reports", Vol. 10, Issue 1, Pages 21878, 2020.

The impact of anthropogenic and environmental factors on human rabies cases in China
J. Yu, H. Xiao, W. Yang, S. Dellicour, M. U. G. Kraemer, Y. Liu, J. Cai, Z. X. Huang, Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, W. Huang, H. Zhang, M. Gilbert, and H. Tian. "Transboundary and Emerging Diseases", Vol. 67, Pages 2544-2553, 2020.

Incorporating heterogeneous sampling probabilities in continuous phylogeographic inference — Application to H5N1 spread in the Mekong region
S. Dellicour, P. Lemey, J. Artois, T. T. Lam, A. Fusaro, I. Monne, G. Cattoli, D. Kuznetsov, I. Xenarios, G. Dauphin, W. Kalpravidh, S. Von Dobschuetz, F. Claes, S. H. Newman, M. A. Suchard, G. Baele, and M. Gilbert. "Bioinformatics", Vol. 36, Issue 7, Pages 2098-2104, 2020.

Preparing for a responsible lockdown exit strategy
M. Gilbert, M. Dewatripont, E. Muraille, J.-P. Platteau, and M. Goldman. "Nature Medicine", Pages 1-2, 2020.

Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
M. Gilbert, G. Pullano, F. Pinotti, E. Valdano, C. Poletto, P.-Y. Boëlle, E. D'Ortenzio, Y. Yazdanpanah, S. P. Eholie, M. Altmann, B. Gutierrez, M. U. G. Kraemer, and V. Colizza. "The Lancet", Vol. 0, Issue 0, 2020.

SARS-CoV-2 emergence and diffusion: a new disease manifesting human-environment interactions and a global geography of health
S. O. Vanwambeke, C. Linard, M. Gilbert, and S. Dellicour. "Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability", Vol. 46, Pages 43-45, 2020.

Contrasting effects of host species and phylogenetic diversity on the occurrence of HPAI H5N1 in European wild birds
Z. Y. X. Huang, C. Xu, F. v. Langevelde, Y. Ma, T. Langendoen, T. Mundkur, Y. Si, H. Tian, R. H. S. Kraus, M. Gilbert, G.-Z. Han, X. Ji, H. H. T. Prins, and W. F. d. Boer. "Journal of Animal Ecology", Vol. 88, Issue 7, Pages 1044-1053, 2019.

Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries
T. P. V. Boeckel, J. Pires, R. Silvester, C. Zhao, J. Song, N. G. Criscuolo, M. Gilbert, S. Bonhoeffer, and R. Laxminarayan. "Science", Vol. 365, Issue 6459, Pages eaaw1944, 2019.

A spatial assessment of Nipah virus transmission in Thailand pig farms using multi-criteria decision analysis
W. Thanapongtharm, M. C. Paul, A. Wiratsudakul, V. Wongphruksasoong, W. Kalpravidh, K. Wongsathapornchai, S. Damrongwatanapokin, D. Schar, and M. Gilbert. "BMC Veterinary Research", Vol. 15, Issue 1, Pages 73, 2019.

Past and future spread of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
M. U. G. Kraemer, R. C. Reiner, O. J. Brady, J. P. Messina, M. Gilbert, D. M. Pigott, D. Yi, K. Johnson, L. Earl, L. B. Marczak, S. Shirude, N. D. Weaver, D. Bisanzio, T. A. Perkins, S. Lai, X. Lu, P. Jones, G. E. Coelho, R. G. Carvalho, W. V. Bortel, C. Marsboom, G. Hendrickx, F. Schaffner, C. G. Moore, H. H. Nax, L. Bengtsson, E. Wetter, A. J. Tatem, J. S. Brownstein, D. L. Smith, L. Lambrechts, S. Cauchemez, C. Linard, N. R. Faria, O. G. Pybus, T. W. Scott, Q. Liu, H. Yu, G. R. W. Wint, S. I. Hay, and N. Golding. "Nature Microbiology", Pages 1, 2019.

Duck production systems and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 in France, 2016–2017
C. Guinat, J. Artois, A. Bronner, J. L. Guérin, M. Gilbert, and M. C. Paul. "Scientific Reports", Vol. 9, Issue 1, Pages 6177, 2019.

Defining ecological regions in Italy based on a multivariate clustering approach: A first step towards a targeted vector borne disease surveillance
C. Ippoliti, L. Candeloro, M. Gilbert, M. Goffredo, G. Mancini, G. Curci, S. Falasca, S. Tora, A. D. Lorenzo, M. Quaglia, and A. Conte. "PLoS One", Vol. 14, Issue 7, Pages e0219072, 2019.

The current and future global distribution and population at risk of dengue
J. P. Messina, O. J. Brady, N. Golding, M. U. G. Kraemer, G. R. W. Wint, S. E. Ray, D. M. Pigott, F. M. Shearer, K. Johnson, L. Earl, L. B. Marczak, S. Shirude, N. D. Weaver, M. Gilbert, R. Velayudhan, P. Jones, T. Jaenisch, T. W. Scott, R. C. Reiner, and S. I. Hay. "Nature Microbiology", Vol. 4, Issue 9, Pages 1508-1515, 2019.

Point pattern simulation modelling of extensive and intensive chicken farming in Thailand: Accounting for clustering and landscape characteristics
C. Chaiban, C. Biscio, W. Thanapongtharm, M. Tildesley, X. Xiao, T. P. Robinson, S. O. Vanwambeke, and M. Gilbert. "Agricultural Systems", Vol. 173, Pages 335-344, 2019.

Predictive gravity models of livestock mobility in Mauritania: The effects of supply, demand and cultural factors
G. Nicolas, A. Apolloni, C. Coste, G. R. W. Wint, R. Lancelot, and M. Gilbert. "PLoS One", Vol. 13, Issue 7, Pages e0199547, 2018.

Environmental heterogeneity and variations in the velocity of bluetongue virus spread in six European epidemics
G. Nicolas, C. Tisseuil, A. Conte, A. Allepuz, M. Pioz, R. Lancelot, and M. Gilbert. "Preventive Veterinary Medicine", Vol. 149, Pages 1-9, 2018.

Dynamics of the 2004 avian influenza H5N1 outbreak in Thailand: The role of duck farming, sequential model fitting and control
R. Retkute, C. P. Jewell, T. P. Van Boeckel, G. Zhang, X. Xiao, W. Thanapongtharm, M. Keeling, M. Gilbert, and M. J. Tildesley. "Preventive Veterinary Medicine", Vol. 159, Pages 171-181, 2018.

How do you find the Green Sheep? A critical review of the use of remotely sensed imagery to detect and count animals
T. Hollings, M. Burgman, M. van Andel, M. Gilbert, T. Robinson, and A. Robinson. "Methods in Ecology and Evolution", Vol. 9, Issue 4, 2018.

Supervised classification of built-up areas in Sub-Saharan African cities using Landsat Imagery and OpenStreetMap
Y. Forget, C. Linard, and M. Gilbert. "Remote Sensing", Vol. 10, Issue 7, Pages 1145, 2018.

Avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreaks in different poultry farm types in Egypt: the effect of vaccination, closing status and farm size
J. Artois, C. Ippoliti, A. Conte, M. S. Dhingra, P. Alfonso, A. E. Tahawy, A. Elbestawy, H. F. Ellakany, and M. Gilbert. "BMC Veterinary Research", Vol. 14, Issue 1, 2018.

Comparative epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and H5N6 in vietnamese live bird markets: spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and risk factors
K. C. Mellor, A. Meyer, D. A. Elkholly, G. Fournié, P. T. Long, K. Inui, P. Padungtod, M. Gilbert, S. H. Newman, T. Vergne, D. U. Pfeiffer, and K. B. Stevens. "Frontiers in Veterinary Science", Vol. 5, 2018.

Forecasting the spatial and seasonal dynamic of Aedes albopictus oviposition activity in Albania and Balkan countries
C. Tisseuil, E. Velo, S. Bino, P. Kadriaj, K. Mersini, A. Shukullari, A. Simaku, E. Rogozi, B. Caputo, E. Ducheyne, A. d. Torre, P. Reiter, and M. Gilbert. "PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases", Vol. 12, Issue 2, Pages e0006236, 2018.

Towards the description of livestock mobility in Sahelian Africa: Some results from a survey in Mauritania
A. Apolloni, G. Nicolas, C. Coste, A. B. E. Mamy, B. Yahya, A. S. E. Arbi, M. B. Gueya, D. Baba, M. Gilbert, and R. Lancelot. "PLoS One", Vol. 13, Issue 1, Pages e0191565, 2018.

Complementarity between Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 for built-up mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa
Y. Forget, M. Shimoni, M. Gilbert, and C. Linard. "Preprints", 2018.

The impact of surveillance and control on highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in poultry in Dhaka division, Bangladesh
E. M. Hill, T. House, M. S. Dhingra, W. Kalpravidh, S. Morzaria, M. G. Osmani, E. Brum, M. Yamage, M. A. Kalam, D. J. Prosser, J. Y. Takekawa, X. Xiao, M. Gilbert, and M. J. Tildesley. "PLoS Computational Biology", Vol. 14, Issue 9, Pages e1006439, 2018.

Geographical and historical patterns in the emergences of novel highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 and H7 viruses in poultry
M. S. Dhingra, J. Artois, S. Dellicour, P. Lemey, G. Dauphin, S. Von Dobschuetz, T. P. Van Boeckel, D. M. Castellan, S. Morzaria, and M. Gilbert. "Frontiers in Veterinary Science", Vol. 5, Issue 84, 2018.

Modelling changing population distributions: an example of the Kenyan Coast, 1979–2009
C. Linard, C. W. Kabaria, M. Gilbert, A. J. Tatem, A. E. Gaughan, F. R. Stevens, A. Sorichetta, A. M. Noor, and R. W. Snow. "International Journal of Digital Earth", Vol. 0, Issue 0, Pages 1-13, 2017.

Changing epidemiology of human Brucellosis, China, 1955–2014
S. Lai, H. Zhou, W. Xiong, M. Gilbert, Z. Huang, J. Yu, W. Yin, L. Wang, Q. Chen, Y. Li, D. Mu, L. Zeng, X. Ren, M. Geng, Z. Zhang, B. Cui, T. Li, D. Wang, Z. Li, N. A. Wardrop, A. J. Tatem, and H. Yu. "Emerging Infectious Diseases", Vol. 23, Issue 2, Pages 184-194, 2017.

Using viral gene sequences to compare and explain the heterogeneous spatial dynamics of virus epidemics
S. Dellicour, R. Rose, N. R. Faria, L. F. P. Vieira, H. Bourhy, M. Gilbert, P. Lemey, and O. G. Pybus. "Molecular Biology and Evolution", Vol. 34, Issue 10, Pages 2563-2571, 2017.

Epidemiology of avian influenza A H7N9 virus in human beings across five epidemics in mainland China, 2013–17: an epidemiological study of laboratory-confirmed case series
X. Wang, H. Jiang, P. Wu, T. M. Uyeki, L. Feng, S. Lai, L. Wang, X. Huo, K. Xu, E. Chen, X. Wang, J. He, M. Kang, R. Zhang, J. Zhang, J. Wu, S. Hu, H. Zhang, X. Liu, W. Fu, J. Ou, S. Wu, Y. Qin, Z. Zhang, Y. Shi, J. Zhang, J. Artois, V. J. Fang, H. Zhu, Y. Guan, M. Gilbert, P. W. Horby, G. M. Leung, G. F. Gao, B. J. Cowling, and H. Yu. "The Lancet Infectious Diseases", Vol. 0, Issue 0, 2017.

Could Changes in the agricultural landscape of northeastern China have influenced the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses?
M. Gilbert, D. J. Prosser, G. Zhang, J. Artois, M. S. Dhingra, M. Tildesley, S. H. Newman, F. Guo, P. Black, F. Claes, W. Kalpradvidh, Y. Shin, W. Jeong, J. Y. Takekawa, H. Lee, and X. Xiao. "Frontiers in Veterinary Science", Vol. 4, 2017.

The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa
C. W. Kabaria, M. Gilbert, A. M. Noor, R. W. Snow, and C. Linard. "Malaria Journal", Vol. 16, Pages 49, 2017.

Reducing antimicrobial use in food animals
T. P. Van Boeckel, E. E. Glennon, D. Chen, M. Gilbert, T. P. Robinson, B. T. Grenfell, S. A. Levin, S. Bonhoeffer, and R. Laxminarayan. "Science", Vol. 357, Issue 6358, Pages 1350-1352, 2017.

Using random forest to improve the downscaling of global livestock census data
G. Nicolas, T. P. Robinson, G. R. W. Wint, G. Conchedda, G. Cinardi, and M. Gilbert. "PLoS One", Vol. 11, Issue 3, Pages e0150424, 2016.

Antibiotic resistance: mitigation opportunities in livestock sector development
T. P. Robinson, D. P. Bu, J. Carrique-Mas, E. M. Fèvre, M. Gilbert, D. Grace, S. I. Hay, J. Jiwakanon, M. Kakkar, S. Kariuki, R. Laxminarayan, J. Lubroth, U. Magnusson, P. Thi Ngoc, T. P. Van Boeckel, and M. E. J. Woolhouse. "Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience", Pages 1-3, 2016.

Evaluating methods to quantify spatial variation in the velocity of biological invasions
C. Tisseuil, A. Gryspeirt, R. Lancelot, M. Pioz, A. Liebhold, and M. Gilbert. "Ecography", Vol. 39, Issue 5, Pages 409-418, 2016.

Antibiotic resistance is the quintessential One Health issue
T. P. Robinson, D. P. Bu, J. Carrique-Mas, E. M. Fèvre, M. Gilbert, D. Grace, S. I. Hay, J. Jiwakanon, M. Kakkar, S. Kariuki, R. Laxminarayan, J. Lubroth, U. Magnusson, P. Thi Ngoc, T. P. Van Boeckel, and M. E. J. Woolhouse. "Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene", Vol. 110, Issue 7, Pages 377-380, 2016.

Did neoliberalizing West African forests produce a new niche for Ebola?
R. G. Wallace, R. Kock, L. Bergmann, M. Gilbert, L. Hogerwerf, C. Pittiglio, R. Mattioli, and R. Wallace. "International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation", Vol. 46, Issue 1, Pages 149-165, 2016.

Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, C. Linard, P. Chinson, S. Kasemsuwan, M. Visser, A. E. Gaughan, M. Epprech, T. P. Robinson, and M. Gilbert. "BMC Veterinary Research", Vol. 12, Issue 1, 2016.

Clade-level spatial modelling of HPAI H5N1 dynamics in the Mekong region reveals new patterns and associations with agro-ecological factors
J. Artois, S. H. Newman, M. S. Dhingra, C. Chaiban, C. Linard, G. Cattoli, I. Monne, A. Fusaro, I. Xenarios, R. Engler, R. Liechti, D. Kuznetsov, T. L. Pham, T. Nguyen, V. D. Pham, D. Castellan, S. Von Dobschuetz, F. Claes, G. Dauphin, K. Inui, and M. Gilbert. "Scientific Reports", Vol. 6, Pages 30316, 2016.

Global mapping of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 viruses with spatial cross-validation
M. S. Dhingra, J. Artois, T. P. Robinson, C. Linard, C. Chaiban, I. Xenarios, R. Engler, R. Liechti, D. Kuznetsov, X. Xiao, S. V. Dobschuetz, F. Claes, S. H. Newman, G. Dauphin, and M. Gilbert. "eLife", Vol. 5, Pages e19571, 2016.

Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals
T. P. Van Boeckel, C. Brower, M. Gilbert, B. T. Grenfell, S. A. Levin, T. P. Robinson, A. Teillant, and R. Laxminarayan. "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA", Vol. 112, Issue 18, Pages 5649-5654, 2015.

Bayesian inference reveals host-specific contributions to the epidemic expansion of Influenza A H5N1
N. S. Trovão, M. A. Suchard, G. Baele, M. Gilbert, and P. Lemey. "Molecular Biology and Evolution", Pages msv185, 2015.

Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks: Resource-based habitats for vector-borne diseases
N. Hartemink, S. O. Vanwambeke, B. V. Purse, M. Gilbert, and H. Van Dyck. "Biological Reviews", Vol. 90, Issue 4, Pages 1151-1162, 2015.

The dawn of structural one health: a new science tracking disease emergence along circuits of capital
R. G. Wallace, L. Bergmann, R. Kock, M. Gilbert, L. Hogerwerf, R. Wallace, and M. Holmberg. "Social Science and Medicine", Vol. 129, Pages 68-77, 2015.

Income disparities and the global distribution of intensively farmed chicken and pigs
M. Gilbert, G. Conchedda, T. P. Van Boeckel, G. Cinardi, C. Linard, G. Nicolas, W. Thanapongtharm, L. D'Aietti, W. Wint, S. H. Newman, and T. P. Robinson. "PLoS One", Vol. 10, Issue 7, Pages e0133381, 2015.

Spatial characterization of colonies of the flying fox bat, a carrier of Nipah virus in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, C. Linard, W. Wiriyarat, P. Chinsorn, B. Kanchanasaka, X. Xiao, C. Biradar, R. G. Wallace, and M. Gilbert. "BMC Veterinary Research", Vol. 11, Issue 1, 2015.

Spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, C. Linard, N. Pamaranon, S. Kawkalong, T. Noimoh, K. Chanachai, T. Parakgamawongsa, and M. Gilbert. "BMC Veterinary Research", Vol. 10, Pages 174, 2014.

Dynamic population mapping using mobile phone data
P. Deville, C. Linard, S. Martin, M. Gilbert, F. R. Stevens, A. E. Gaughan, V. D. Blondel, and A. J. Tatem. "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA", Vol. 111, Issue 45, Pages 15888-15893, 2014.

Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl
J. Cappelle, D. Zhao, M. Gilbert, M. I. Nelson, S. H. Newman, J. Y. Takekawa, N. Gaidet, D. J. Prosser, Y. Liu, P. Li, Y. Shu, and X. Xiao. "EcoHealth", Vol. 11, Issue 1, Pages 109-119, 2014.

Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia
M. Gilbert, N. Golding, H. Zhou, G. R. W. Wint, T. P. Robinson, A. J. Tatem, S. Lai, S. Zhou, H. Jiang, D. Guo, Z. Huang, J. P. Messina, X. Xiao, C. Linard, T. P. Van Boeckel, V. Martin, S. Bhatt, P. W. Gething, J. J. Farrar, S. I. Hay, and H. Yu. "Nature Communications", Vol. 5, Pages 4116, 2014.

Agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza circulation: a multisite study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar
M. C. Paul, M. Gilbert, S. Desvaux, H. Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, M. Peyre, N. V. Khong, W. Thanapongtharm, and V. Chevalier. "PLoS One", Vol. 9, Issue 7, Pages e101958, 2014.

Farms, pastures and woodlands: the fine-scale distribution of Palearctic Culicoides spp. biting midges along an agro-ecological gradient
T. Rigot, M. Vercauteren Drubbel, J.-C. DeléColle, and M. Gilbert. "Medical and Veterinary Entomology", Vol. 27, Issue 1, Pages 29-38, 2013.

Predicting hotspots for influenza virus reassortment
T. L. Fuller, M. Gilbert, V. Martin, J. Cappelle, P. Hosseini, K. Y. Njabo, S. Abdel Aziz, X. Xiao, P. Daszak, and T. B. Smith. "Emerging Infectious Diseases", Vol. 19, Issue 4, Pages 581-588, 2013.

Rivers and flooded areas identified by medium-resolution remote sensing improve risk prediction of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand
W. Thanapongtharm, T. P. Van Boeckel, C. Biradar, X. Xiao, and M. Gilbert. "Geospatial Health", Vol. 8, Issue 1, Pages 193, 2013.

Modelling spatial patterns of urban growth in Africa
C. Linard, A. J. Tatem, and M. Gilbert. "Applied Geography", Vol. 44, Pages 23-32, 2013.

Modeling habitat suitability for occurrence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in domestic poultry in Asia: A spatial multicriteria decision analysis approach
K. B. Stevens, M. Gilbert, and D. U. Pfeiffer. "Spatial and Spatiotemporal Epidemiology", Vol. 4, Pages 1-14, 2013.

Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy
P. Mardulyn, M. Goffredo, A. Conte, G. Hendrickx, R. Meiswinkel, T. Balenghien, S. Sghaier, Y. Lohr, and M. Gilbert. "Molecular Ecology", Vol. 22, Issue 9, Pages 2456-2466, 2013.

Can landscape metrics help determine the Culicoides imicola distribution in Italy?
C. Ippoliti, M. Gilbert, S. Vanhuysse, M. Goffredo, G. Satta, E. Wolff, and A. Conte. "Geospatial Health", Vol. 8, Issue 1, Pages 267–277, 2013.

The Nosoi commute: a spatial perspective on the rise of BSL-4 laboratories in cities
T. P. Van Boeckel, M. J. Tildesley, C. Linard, J. Halloy, M. J. Keeling, and M. Gilbert. "arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.3283", 2013.

Predicting the distribution of intensive poultry farming in Thailand
T. P. Van Boeckel, W. Thanapongtharm, T. Robinson, L. D’Aietti, and M. Gilbert. "Agriculture, Ecosystems a,d Environment", Vol. 149, Pages 144-153, 2012.

Quantifying the spatial dependence of Culicoides midge samples collected by Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps: an experimental approach to infer the range of attraction of light traps
T. Rigot, and M. Gilbert. "Medical and Veterinary Entomology", Vol. 26, Issue 2, Pages 152-161, 2012.

Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model
T. Rigot, A. Conte, M. Goffredo, E. Ducheyne, G. Hendrickx, and M. Gilbert. "Parasites and Vectors", Vol. 5, Issue 1, Pages 1, 2012.

Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic
T. P. Van Boeckel, W. Thanapongtharm, T. Robinson, C. M. Biradar, X. Xiao, and M. Gilbert. "PLoS One", Vol. 7, Issue 11, Pages e49528, 2012.

Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia
T. P. Van Boeckel, D. Prosser, G. Franceschini, C. Biradar, W. Wint, T. Robinson, and M. Gilbert. "Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment", Vol. 141, Issue 3-4, Pages 373-380, 2011.

Characterizing the interface between wild ducks and poultry to evaluate the potential of transmission of avian pathogens
J. Cappelle, N. Gaidet, S. A. Iverson, J. Y. Takekawa, S. H. Newman, B. Fofana, and M. Gilbert. "International Journal of Health Geographics", Vol. 10, Issue 1, Pages 1, 2011.

Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China
D. J. Prosser, J. Wu, E. C. Ellis, F. Gale, T. P. Van Boeckel, W. Wint, T. Robinson, X. Xiao, and M. Gilbert. "Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment", Vol. 141, Issue 3-4, Pages 381-389, 2011.

Monitoring of the intra-dermal tuberculosis skin test performed by Belgian field practitioners
M.-F. Humblet, K. Walravens, O. Salandre, M. L. Boschiroli, M. Gilbert, D. Berkvens, M. Fauville-Dufaux, J. Godfroid, J. Dufey, A. Raskin, L. Vanholme, and C. Saegerman. "Research in Veterinary Science", Vol. 91, Issue 2, Pages 199-207, 2011.

Trees wanted — dead or alive! Host selection and population dynamics in tree-killing bark beetles
K. L. Kausrud, J.-C. Grégoire, O. Skarpaas, N. Erbilgin, M. Gilbert, B. Økland, and N. C. Stenseth. "PLoS One", Vol. 6, Issue 5, Pages e18274, 2011.

Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling
C. Linard, M. Gilbert, and A. J. Tatem. "GeoJournal", Vol. 76, Issue 5, Pages 525-538, 2011.

Risk-based surveillance for avian influenza control along poultry market chains in South China: The value of social network analysis
V. Martin, X. Zhou, E. Marshall, B. Jia, G. Fusheng, M. A. FrancoDixon, N. DeHaan, D. U. Pfeiffer, R. J. Soares Magalhães, and M. Gilbert. "Preventive Veterinary Medicine", Vol. 102, Issue 3, Pages 196-205, 2011.

Spatial distribution and risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in China
V. Martin, D. U. Pfeiffer, X. Zhou, X. Xiao, D. J. Prosser, F. Guo, and M. Gilbert. "PLoS Pathogens", Vol. 7, Issue 3, Pages e1001308, 2011.

Identifying risk factors of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 subtype) in Indonesia
L. Loth, M. Gilbert, J. Wu, C. Czarnecki, M. Hidayat, and X. Xiao. "Preventive Veterinary Medicine", Vol. 102, Issue 1, Pages 50-58, 2011.

Persistence of highly pathogenic avian Influenza H5N1 virus defined by agro-ecological niche
L. Hogerwerf, R. G. Wallace, D. Ottaviani, J. Slingenbergh, D. Prosser, L. Bergmann, and M. Gilbert. "EcoHealth", Vol. 7, Issue 2, Pages 213-225, 2010.

The cold European winter of 2005–2006 assisted the spread and persistence of H5N1 influenza virus in wild birds
D. Ottaviani, S. de la Rocque, S. Khomenko, M. Gilbert, S. H. Newman, B. Roche, K. Schwabenbauer, J. Pinto, T. P. Robinson, and J. Slingenbergh. "EcoHealth", Vol. 7, Issue 2, Pages 226-236, 2010.

Anthropogenic factors and the risk of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1: prospects from a spatial-based model
M. Paul, S. Tavornpanich, D. Abrial, P. Gasqui, M. Charras-Garrido, W. Thanapongtharm, X. Xiao, M. Gilbert, F. Roger, and C. Ducrot. "Veterinary Research", Vol. 41, Issue 3, Pages 28, 2010.

Ecological modeling of the spatial distribution of wild waterbirds to identify the main areas where avian influenza viruses are circulating in the Inner Niger Delta, Mali
J. Cappelle, O. Girard, B. Fofana, N. Gaidet, and M. Gilbert. "EcoHealth", Vol. 7, Issue 3, Pages 283-293, 2010.

Comparing methods for measuring the rate of spread of invading populations
M. Gilbert, and A. Liebhold. "Ecography", Vol. 33, Issue 5, Pages 809-817, 2010.

New assessment of bovine tuberculosis risk factors in Belgium based on nationwide molecular epidemiology
M.-F. Humblet, M. Gilbert, M. Govaerts, M. Fauville-Dufaux, K. Walravens, and C. Saegerman. "Journal of Clinical Microbiology", Vol. 48, Issue 8, Pages 2802-2808, 2010.

Resource allocation for efficient environmental management: Theory for environmental management
M. A. McCarthy, C. J. Thompson, C. Hauser, M. A. Burgman, H. P. Possingham, M. L. Moir, T. Tiensin, and M. Gilbert. "Ecology Letters", Vol. 13, Issue 10, Pages 1280-1289, 2010.

Risk factors and clusters of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in Bangladesh
L. Loth, M. Gilbert, M. G. Osmani, A. M. Kalam, and X. Xiao. "Preventive Veterinary Medicine", Vol. 96, Issue 1-2, Pages 104-113, 2010.

Méthodes d’évaluation des attaques d'Ips typographus (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) en pessière.
J.-C. Grégoire, M. Gilbert, C. De Cannière, and Delplace.
In "La forêt face aux tempêtes", Éditions Quae, Versailles, Pages 77-99. 2009.

Eight years of entomological surveillance in Italy show no evidence of Culicoides imicola geographical range expansion
A. Conte, M. Gilbert, and M. Goffredo. "Journal of Applied Ecology", 2009.

A wind density model to quantify the airborne spread of Culicoides species during north-western Europe bluetongue epidemic, 2006
G. Hendrickx, M. Gilbert, C. Staubach, A. Elbers, K. Mintiens, G. Gerbier, and E. Ducheyne. "Preventive Veterinary Medicine", Vol. 87, Issue 1-2, Pages 162-181, 2008.

Remote sensing, ecological variables, and wild bird migration related to outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza
X. Xiao, M. Gilbert, J. Slingenbergh, F. Lei, and S. Boles. "Journal of Wildlife Diseases", Vol. 43, Issue 1, Pages 40, 2007.

Coniferous round wood imports from Russia and Baltic countries to Belgium. A pathway analysis for assessing risks of exotic pest insect introductions: Pathway analysis
F. Piel, M. Gilbert, C. De Cannière, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Diversity and Distributions", Vol. 14, Issue 2, Pages 318-328, 2007.

Avian influenza, domestic ducks and rice agriculture in Thailand
M. Gilbert, X. Xiao, P. Chaitaweesub, W. Kalpravidh, S. Premashthira, S. Boles, and J. Slingenbergh. "Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment", Vol. 119, Issue 3-4, Pages 409-415, 2007.

Predator/prey ratios: a measure of bark-beetle population status influenced by stand composition in different French stands after the 1999 storms
N. Warzée, M. Gilbert, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Annals of Forest Science", Vol. 63, Issue 3, Pages 301-308, 2006.

Cattle movements and bovine tuberculosis in Great Britain
M. Gilbert, A. Mitchell, D. Bourn, J. Mawdsley, R. Clifton-Hadley, and W. Wint. "Nature", Vol. 435, Issue 7041, Pages 491-496, 2005.

Patterns of spread and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease types A, O and Asia-1 in Turkey: a meta-population approach
M. Gilbert, S. Aktas, H. Mohammed, P. Roeder, K. Sumption, M. Tufan, and J. Slingenbergh. "Epidemiology and Infection", Vol. 133, Issue 3, Pages 537-545, 2005.

Post-storm surveys reveal large-scale spatial patterns and influences of site factors, forest structure and diversity in endemic bark-beetle populations
M. Gilbert, L.-M. Nageleisen, A. Franklin, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Landscape Ecology", Vol. 20, Issue 1, Pages 35-49, 2005.

Forecasting Cameraria ohridella invasion dynamics in recently invaded countries: from validation to prediction: A priori prediction of invasion dynamics
M. Gilbert, S. Guichard, J. Freise, J.-C. Grégoire, W. Heitland, N. Straw, C. Tilbury, and S. Augustin. "Journal of Applied Ecology", Vol. 42, Issue 5, Pages 805-813, 2005.

Spatial structure of litter-dwelling ant distribution in a subtropical dry forest
L. Theunis, M. Gilbert, Y. Roisin, and M. Leponce. "Insectes Sociaux", Vol. 52, Issue 4, Pages 366-377, 2005.

Occurrence of Ips typographus (Col., Scolytidae) along an urbanization gradient in Brussels, Belgium
F. Piel, M. Gilbert, A. Franklin, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Agricultural and Forest Entomology", Vol. 7, Issue 2, Pages 161–167, 2005.

Spatial structure of litter-dwelling ant distribution in a subtropical dry forest
L. Theunis, M. Gilbert, Y. Roisin, and M. Leponce. "Insectes Sociaux", Vol. 52, Issue 4, Pages 366-377, 2005.

Characteristics of cattle movements in Britain–an analysis of records from the Cattle Tracing System
A. Mitchell, D. Bourn, J. Mawdsley, W. Wint, R. Clifton-Hadley, and M. Gilbert. "Animal Science", Vol. 80, Issue 03, Pages 265–273, 2005.

Species richness coincidence: conservation strategies based on predictive modelling
D. Maes, D. Bauwens, L. De Bruyn, A. Anselin, G. Vermeersch, W. Van Landuyt, G. De Knijf, and M. Gilbert. "Biodiversity and Conservation", Vol. 14, Issue 6, Pages 1345-1364, 2005.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004
T. Tiensin, P. Chaitaweesub, T. Songserm, A. Chaisingh, W. Hoonsuwan, C. Buranathai, T. Parakamawongsa, S. Premashthira, A. Amonsin, M. Gilbert, and others. "Emerging Infectious Diseases", Vol. 11, Issue 11, Pages 1664–1672, 2005.

Ecological sources of zoonotic diseases
J. Slingenbergh, M. Gilbert, K. d. Balogh, and W. Wint. "Revue scientifique et technique-Office international des épizooties", Vol. 23, Issue 2, Pages 467–484, 2004.

Monitoring the regional spread of the invasive leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) by damage assessment and pheromone trapping
S. Augustin, S. Guichard, A. Svatoš, and M. Gilbert. "Environmental Entomology", Vol. 33, Issue 6, Pages 1584–1592, 2004.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization: a new method for determining primary sex ratio in ants
L. de Menten, H. Niculita, M. Gilbert, D. Delneste, and S. Aron. "Molecular Ecology", Vol. 12, Issue 6, Pages 1637-1648, 2003.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization: a new method for determining primary sex ratio in ants
L. de Menten, H. Niculita, M. Gilbert, D. Delneste, and S. Aron. "Molecular Ecology", Vol. 12, Issue 6, Pages 1637-1648, 2003.

Spatial pattern of invading Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) populations in the United Kingdom
M. Gilbert, N. Fielding, H. F. Evans, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Canadian Journal of Forest Research", Vol. 33, Issue 4, Pages 712-725, 2003.

Spatial patterns and infestation processes in the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella: a tale of two cities
M. Gilbert, A. Svatoš, M. Lehmann, and S. Bacher. "Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata", Vol. 107, Issue 1, Pages 25–37, 2003.

Prediction of butterfly diversity hotspots in Belgium: a comparison of statistically focused and land use-focused models
D. Maes, M. Gilbert, N. Titeux, P. Goffart, and R. L. Dennis. "Journal of Biogeography", Vol. 30, Issue 12, Pages 1907–1920, 2003.

Visual, semi-quantitative assessments allow accurate estimates of leafminer population densities: an example comparing image processing and visual evaluation of damage by the horse chestnut leafminer Cameraria ohridella (Lep., Gracillariidae)
M. Gilbert, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Journal of Applied Entomology", Vol. 127, Issue 6, Pages 354–359, 2003.

The Programme Against African Trypanosomiasis Information System (PAATIS).
M. Gilbert, C. Jenner, J. Pender, D. Rogers, J. Slingenbergh, and W. Wint.
In "The African Trypanosomes", Springer, Pages 11–24. 2002.

Social parasitism in ants: effects of the inquiline parasite Plagiolepis xene St. on queen distribution and worker production of its host Plagiolepis pygmaea Latr.
L. Passera, M. Gilbert, and S. Aron. "Insectes Sociaux", Vol. 48, Issue 1, Pages 74–79, 2001.

Social parasitism in ants: effects of the inquiline parasite Plagiolepis xene St. on queen distribution and worker production of its host Plagiolepis pygmaea Latr.
L. Passera, M. Gilbert, and S. Aron. "Insectes Sociaux", Vol. 48, Issue 1, Pages 74–79, 2001.

Spatial distribution of ambrosia-beetle catches: a possibly useful knowledge to improve mass-trapping
J.-C. Grégoire, F. Piel, M. De Proft, and M. Gilbert. "Integrated Pest Management Reviews", Vol. 6, Issue 3-4, Pages 237–242, 2001.

Past attacks influence host selection by the solitary bark beetle Dendroctonus micans
M. Gilbert, G. Vouland, and J.-C. Grégoire. "Ecological Entomology", Vol. 26, Issue 2, Pages 133–142, 2001.

Large-scale versus small-scale variation decomposition, followed by kriging based on a relative variogram, in presence of a non-stationary residual variance
L. Raty, and M. Gilbert. "Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis", Vol. 2, Issue 2, Pages 91–115, 1998.